The oldest and most established maritime trade education institution in Turkey is the Istanbul Technical University (ITU) Maritime Faculty, which was founded in 1773 as the Imperial School of Naval Engineering (Mühendishane-i Bahr-i Hümayun) during the Ottoman Empire.
The ITU Maritime Faculty is the first higher education institution in Turkey that provides education and research in the field of maritime studies. It has a long and prestigious history in maritime education and is recognized internationally for its quality of education and research in various maritime fields such as naval architecture, marine engineering, and maritime transportation.
Over the years, the ITU Maritime Faculty has produced a significant number of graduates who have made significant contributions to the maritime industry in Turkey and around the world. It continues to be a leading institution for maritime education in Turkey and attracts students from all over the country and the world.
There are several universities in Turkey that offer education on maritime-related fields such as naval architecture, marine engineering, marine transportation, and maritime law. Some of the universities in Turkey that provide education on maritime are:
- Istanbul Technical University (ITU) – Maritime Faculty
- Dokuz Eylul University (DEU) – Maritime Faculty
- Piri Reis University – Maritime Faculty
- Istanbul University – Faculty of Law, Maritime Law Department
- Koc University – College of Engineering, Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering Department
- Karadeniz Technical University – Maritime Faculty
- Yildiz Technical University – Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering Department
- Cukurova University – Maritime Faculty
- Gazi University – Maritime Faculty
- Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University – Maritime Faculty
Note that this list is not exhaustive, and there may be other universities or institutions that offer similar programs.
Ship transportation on the rivers of Russia typically takes place from early spring until late autumn when the waterways are not frozen. The exact dates may vary depending on the location and specific conditions of the waterways.
In general, the shipping season in Russia starts in late March or early April and ends in late November or early December. However, some rivers may have a shorter or longer shipping season depending on their location and climate.
During the winter months, many of the rivers in Russia freeze over, which makes navigation impossible. The exact dates when shipping is closed due to icing will also depend on the location and specific conditions of the waterways. In general, shipping may be closed from late November or early December until late March or early April in most areas of Russia where river transport is used.
It’s worth noting that some of the major rivers in Russia, such as the Volga and the Don, have icebreakers that can operate during the winter months, allowing for limited shipping to continue even when the rivers are frozen.
There are several problems that may be encountered in maritime export operations. Here are some of the most common:
- Delays: Delays are a common problem in maritime export operations, and can be caused by a variety of factors, including weather conditions, port congestion, labor strikes, and other logistical issues.
- Damage to goods: During transit, goods may be exposed to a variety of risks, including damage from rough handling, moisture, and temperature fluctuations. Proper packaging and labeling can help to mitigate these risks.
- Regulatory compliance: International shipping involves complying with a complex set of regulations, including customs regulations, export controls, and safety and security standards. Failure to comply with these regulations can result in delays, fines, and other penalties.
- Payment issues: Collecting payment from buyers can be challenging, particularly when dealing with unfamiliar currencies and payment methods. It is important to work with a reputable bank and to establish clear payment terms in advance.
- Communication breakdowns: Miscommunications between parties involved in the transaction, such as the buyer, shipping company, and export authorities, can lead to delays, confusion, and other problems. Clear and timely communication is essential to ensuring a successful export operation.
- Political and economic instability: Political and economic instability in the destination country can pose a significant risk to maritime export operations, as it can lead to changes in regulations, trade restrictions, and other challenges.
- Environmental concerns: Maritime shipping can have a significant impact on the environment, particularly through the emission of greenhouse gases and other pollutants. Increasingly, regulations are being put in place to address these concerns, which can add additional complexity to maritime export operations.
To minimize these and other risks, it is important to work with experienced professionals, such as freight forwarders, shipping companies, and international trade specialists, and to stay up-to-date on the latest regulations and industry best practices.
Exporting companies should take several steps to prepare for transportation by sea. Here are some of the key considerations:
- Choose a reliable shipping company: Selecting a reliable shipping company is critical to ensuring that your goods arrive at their destination on time and in good condition. Look for a company with a good reputation, experience in your industry, and competitive pricing.
- Obtain necessary documents: There are a number of documents required for international shipping by sea, including a bill of lading, commercial invoice, packing list, and export declaration. Ensure that you have all necessary documents in order and that they are accurate and complete.
- Properly pack and label goods: Goods being transported by sea must be properly packed and labeled to ensure that they are protected during transit and that they arrive at their destination in good condition. Make sure that all packaging meets the requirements of the shipping company and the destination country.
- Obtain appropriate insurance: Shipping by sea can be risky, so it is important to obtain appropriate insurance coverage to protect your goods in case of loss, damage, or other issues during transit.
- Consider customs requirements: Different countries have different customs requirements, and it is important to understand these requirements before shipping your goods. Ensure that all necessary customs documentation is completed accurately and on time to avoid delays and other issues.
- Monitor the shipment: Once your goods are en route, it is important to monitor the shipment closely to ensure that it is progressing as planned. Stay in communication with the shipping company and be prepared to address any issues that arise along the way.
By taking these steps and preparing carefully for transportation by sea, exporting companies can help to ensure a successful international shipping experience.
The workflow of loading goods onto a ship and collecting payment from the buyer’s bank typically involves several steps. Here is a general overview:
- Obtain shipping instructions from the buyer: Before loading goods onto a ship, you will need to obtain shipping instructions from the buyer, including the name and location of the port of discharge, the expected arrival date, and any other specific requirements.
- Prepare goods for shipment: Once you have shipping instructions, you will need to prepare the goods for shipment, including packaging, labeling, and documentation.
- Arrange for transport to the port: After the goods are prepared, you will need to arrange for transport to the port of loading. This may involve working with a freight forwarder or other transportation provider.
- Load goods onto the ship: Once the goods arrive at the port of loading, they will be loaded onto the ship according to the shipping instructions.
- Obtain bill of lading: After the goods are loaded, you will need to obtain a bill of lading from the shipping company. This document serves as proof of shipment and ownership of the goods.
- Submit documents to the bank: After the goods are shipped, you will need to submit the necessary documents to your bank to collect payment from the buyer. These documents may include the bill of lading, commercial invoice, packing list, and any other required documentation.
- Bank collection and payment: Once the bank receives the necessary documents, they will process the payment from the buyer and transfer the funds to your account.
It is important to note that the specific details of this workflow may vary depending on the specific requirements of the buyer, shipping company, and other parties involved in the transaction. It is also important to work with experienced professionals, such as freight forwarders and international trade specialists, to ensure that all necessary steps are taken and the transaction is completed successfully.
Buying and selling ships can be a complex and involved process. Here are some points to consider:
Points to consider while buying ships:
- Purpose and budget: The purpose of the vessel and the available budget should be considered. This includes the type of cargo or passengers to be carried, expected voyage distances, and the expected lifespan of the vessel.
- Age and condition: The age, condition, and maintenance history of the ship should be evaluated. This includes checking the hull, machinery, and navigation equipment for any signs of wear and tear or damage.
- Compliance and certification: The vessel should be evaluated for compliance with regulations and certification requirements, such as those related to safety, security, and environmental protection.
- Legal and financial due diligence: Legal and financial due diligence should be conducted to verify ownership, flag registration, insurance, and any liens or encumbrances on the vessel.
- Sale and purchase agreement: A sale and purchase agreement should be drafted to clearly outline the terms of the transaction, including price, delivery, and warranties.
Points to consider while selling ships:
- Market conditions: The current market conditions, including supply and demand and pricing trends, should be considered to determine the optimal time to sell the vessel.
- Valuation and pricing: The vessel should be properly valued to determine an appropriate asking price. This should take into account factors such as age, condition, and market demand.
- Marketing and advertising: The vessel should be marketed and advertised effectively to reach potential buyers. This may include listing the vessel with brokers or using online marketplaces.
- Negotiation and sale agreement: Negotiations should be conducted with potential buyers, and a sale agreement should be drafted to clearly outline the terms of the transaction, including price, payment terms, and delivery.
- Transfer of ownership: Once the sale is complete, the transfer of ownership should be properly documented and completed in compliance with relevant regulations and requirements. This includes transferring the vessel’s registration and flag, and updating insurance and other relevant documentation.
- Decommissioning and handover: If the vessel is being sold for scrapping or decommissioning, appropriate steps should be taken to ensure that the vessel is safely and responsibly dismantled and that any environmental or safety risks are properly managed. If the vessel is being sold to continue operations, a handover process should be put in place to ensure that the new owners are properly trained and equipped to operate the vessel safely and efficiently.
By considering these points, buyers and sellers of ships can help ensure that the transaction is completed smoothly and that the vessel is properly evaluated, valued, and transferred in compliance with all relevant regulations and requirements.
Chartering a vessel to transport cargo involves a number of important considerations for the charterer. Some of the key issues that should be taken into account include:
- Cargo type and quantity: The charterer needs to consider the type and amount of cargo they wish to transport. This will determine the type and size of the vessel required.
- Vessel suitability: The charterer needs to ensure that the vessel they charter is suitable for the type of cargo they wish to transport. Factors such as the vessel’s size, capacity, speed, and equipment must be taken into account.
- Charter party agreement: The charterer needs to negotiate and agree upon the terms and conditions of the charter party agreement. This includes issues such as the hire rate, laytime, demurrage, and other commercial terms.
- Loading and unloading procedures: The charterer needs to ensure that the loading and unloading procedures are safe and efficient. This includes issues such as the loading and stowage plan, cargo handling equipment, and procedures for cargo damage prevention.
- Regulatory compliance: The charterer must comply with all relevant regulations related to the transportation of cargo. This includes regulations related to safety, security, and environmental protection.
- Insurance: The charterer needs to ensure that appropriate insurance coverage is in place to protect the cargo and the vessel during transit.
- Payment and financial arrangements: The charterer needs to arrange for payment of the hire rate and any other charges related to the charter. This includes issues such as payment terms, letters of credit, and other financial arrangements.
Overall, charterers must carefully consider all of these factors and work closely with the vessel owner or operator to ensure a successful and safe voyage for their cargo.
“Ladies and Gentlemen, today we will be discussing the important topic of supporting companies whose business activities have been disrupted by war. When a company’s operations are stopped due to war or conflict, it is crucial that the company receives adequate support to ensure the safety of its employees and minimize financial losses.
In a safe country like TURKEY, a range of services can be provided to companies whose business activities have been stopped due to war. These services include:
- Temporary Relocation – This service provides a safe and secure environment for employees who have been displaced due to the conflict.
- Crisis Management Planning – This service assists companies in developing a comprehensive plan to deal with the crisis, including how to communicate with employees, customers, and other stakeholders.
- Business Continuity Planning – This service assists companies in ensuring that their operations can continue as smoothly as possible, even in the face of a crisis.
Thank you for your attention. We are here to answer any questions you may have.
The Black Sea Grain Corridor procedures refer to the steps and regulations involved in the transportation of grain (wheat, barley, corn, etc.) from the Black Sea region to global markets. The procedures typically include:
- Quality control: Inspections and testing to ensure that the grain meets international standards.
- Documentation: Preparing and submitting necessary documents such as export certificates, sanitary certificates, and phytosanitary certificates.
- Loading and transportation: Loading the grain onto ships or other modes of transportation for export.
- Customs clearance: Clearing the grain through customs at the origin and destination ports.
- Insurance: Securing insurance coverage for the grain during transportation.
These procedures may vary depending on the specific country and its regulations.